Top 5 Train Routes to Explore Mongolia
8 Oct 2023

Top 5 Train Routes to Explore Mongolia

Post by Diane Fuller

Mongolia, with its vast landscapes that range from rugged mountains and dense forests to sweeping deserts and verdant steppes, offers an enthralling train travel experience. As the wheels chug along the tracks, they weave stories of Mongolia’s age-old traditions, modern aspirations, and the heart-warming simplicity of its people. If you’re looking to explore Mongolia by taking trains, here are the top five train routes you must check out. We will also provide information about safety tips and essential documents you should prepare before you embark on the journey.

1. The Trans-Mongolian Railway: Ulaanbaatar to Beijing

As part of the larger Trans-Siberian Railway, the stretch from Ulaanbaatar to Beijing stands out for the sheer variety of experiences it offers. One can marvel at how the expansive Mongolian steppes gradually meld into the rugged mountains, only to descend into the verdant plains of Northern China. An additional highlight is the Gorkhi-Terelj National Park near Ulaanbaatar and, as you approach Beijing, the iconic Great Wall of China stands as a testament to human ingenuity. The journey, approximately 30 hours long, undergoes an interesting process at the border due to differing track gauges in Mongolia and China, making it a unique experience for train enthusiasts.

2. The Northern Adventure: Ulaanbaatar to Darkhan

The northern stretch connecting Ulaanbaatar to Darkhan is a testament to the serenity of Mongolia. This relatively short journey, spanning about 3 hours, reveals vast green meadows interspersed with traditional gers (yurts) and livestock grazing leisurely. As the train winds its way north, a visit to the Amarbayasgalant Monastery – one of Mongolia’s largest and most significant – offers a spiritual retreat. Those willing to travel in the winter are rewarded with ethereal views of landscapes blanketed in snow, transforming the region into a winter wonderland.

3. The Gobi Explorer: Ulaanbaatar to Sainshand

The allure of the Gobi Desert is hard to resist, and the train route from Ulaanbaatar to Sainshand is the ideal way to experience it. Over a span of 10 hours, travelers are treated to views of vast sand dunes, rugged rock formations, and the occasional oasis. The journey offers more than just natural beauty. The Khamar Monastery and the Energy Center, considered the heart chakra of the earth by some, bring a spiritual dimension to this trip. For those traveling during summer, it’s essential to be prepared for the intense desert heat, but the landscapes bathed in golden sunlight are worth the effort.

4. The Western Sojourn: Ulaanbaatar to Bayan-Ölgii

Often overlooked by mainstream tourists, the route to Bayan-Ölgii in Mongolia’s western region promises unique cultural insights. As the train chugs through the remote landscapes, one can witness the snow-capped Altai Mountains, vast valleys, and serene lakes. Bayan-Ölgii, with its predominant Kazakh population, offers a distinct cultural flavor – eagle hunting is one of its most revered traditions. The journey, being long and sometimes requiring layovers or route changes, demands patience but rewards with unparalleled experiences, especially if timed with the annual Golden Eagle Festival in October.

5. The Heartland Voyage: Ulaanbaatar to Erdenet

Traveling from Ulaanbaatar to Erdenet is akin to taking a voyage into Mongolia’s agrarian soul. Over 6-7 hours, the train moves through rolling hills that echo the rhythms of pastoral life. Erdenet, one of Mongolia’s major cities, invites travelers with its intriguing mix of urban modernity and rustic charm. A visit to the city’s vast copper mines, among the largest in the world, offers an industrial perspective. For a more localized experience, wandering through Erdenet’s bustling markets provides a slice of daily Mongolian life and a chance to pick up unique souvenirs.

Safety Tips for Solo Travelers on Mongolian Trains

Traveling solo can be a liberating and enriching experience, but it’s essential to be vigilant and informed, especially when venturing into unfamiliar territories. For those embarking on a solo journey on Mongolian trains, here are some safety tips to ensure a smooth and memorable experience:

  1. Stay Informed: Familiarize yourself with the train schedule, route, and stops. This not only helps in planning your journey but also ensures you don’t find yourself in unexpected situations or unfamiliar stations late at night.
  2. Choose Your Compartment Wisely: If possible, opt for sleeper compartments that offer more privacy and security. Some travelers feel safer in lower berths where they can keep their belongings within easy reach.
  3. Keep Valuables Close: While Mongolia is generally safe, it’s always a good practice to keep your valuables, such as passports, money, and electronics, close to you. Consider investing in a money belt or a hidden pouch.
  4. Engage with Fellow Travelers: Engaging in friendly conversations with fellow travelers can be both enriching and reassuring. Often, they can offer insights, share experiences, or even watch over your belongings during short breaks.
  5. Be Cautious with Food and Drinks: Be wary of accepting food or drinks from strangers. While most locals are hospitable and genuine, it’s better to be safe and avoid potential problems.
  6. Stay Connected: While not all trains may have consistent mobile connectivity, ensure your phone is charged and equipped with a local SIM card. Informing a trusted person of your whereabouts and plans can also add an extra layer of security.
  7. Know Emergency Contacts: Familiarize yourself with local emergency numbers or the train staff who can assist in case of any issues.
  8. Trust Your Instincts: Your intuition is your best guide. If a situation or a person feels off, trust your instincts and take precautionary steps, be it changing your seat or alerting trained personnel.
  9. Stay Sober: While it might be tempting to indulge in local brews or spirits, it’s essential to remain alert, especially when you’re responsible for yourself in an unfamiliar setting.
  10. Language Preparedness: Learning a few basic Mongolian phrases or having a translation app can be handy. Simple phrases like asking for help or directions can make a difference.

Essential Documents for Mongolia-Bound International Travelers

Before you board, make sure your document game is on point. Here’s your quick-fire guide to the must-haves:

  • Passport: Your golden ticket! Ensure it has a minimum of six months’ validity.
  • Mongolian Visa: While some nations enjoy visa-free access for short trips, it’s vital to check if you need to secure one.
  • Proofs of Journey: Whether it’s your train tickets or hotel bookings, keep them handy.
  • Travel Insurance: Because it’s better to be safe than sorry. This should cover potential mishaps, from medical emergencies to trip cancellations.
  • Local Currency: While the urban hubs are card-friendly, Mongolian tögrög is your best companion for off-the-grid locations.
  • Emergency Contacts: Note down contacts for your country’s embassy in Mongolia and essential local services.
  • Backup Docs: Always wise to have photocopies of your major documents.
  • Driving Essentials: If driving’s on your agenda, pack both your original and an international driver’s license.
  • Language Aids: A simple Mongolian phrasebook or an app can bridge language barriers in more remote spots.

Being well-prepared means you can focus on the breathtaking views from your train window, rather than fretting over paperwork. So make sure to prepare everything beforehand. If you’re looking to stay in Mongolia a little longer and maybe try interesting jobs, check out websites like https://worki.mn/ to be prepared.


Mongolia’s vast landscapes offer train voyages like no other, weaving tales from the serene steppes to the magnetic allure of the Gobi Desert. From the globally recognized Trans-Mongolian journey to the culturally rich route to Bayan-Ölgii, each path promises memories that linger. However, an unforgettable journey is backed by smart planning. Solo travelers, remember to stay vigilant, embracing both the local culture and fellow travelers while ensuring personal safety. As for documentation, a little preparation ensures your adventure runs as smoothly as the train on its tracks. With the right routes, a safety-first approach, and your documents in order, Mongolia’s scenic tapestry awaits your discovery. Happy travels!